A calorie-restricted diet enriched with tree nuts and peanuts reduces the expression of CX3CR1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with coronary artery disease
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD), Inflammation
Year Published: 2021
Int J Vitam Nutr Res
Matin Ghanavati, Javad Nasrollahzadeh
Methods: Overweight or obese patients with stable coronary artery disease of both genders were randomly allocated to a nut-free calorie-restricted diet as 25% of energy deficit (CRD) or a CRD enriched with 39-60 gr/d of mixed nuts (CRDEN) for 8 weeks (32 patients in CRD and 35 patients in CRDEN). Mixed nuts consisted of equal amounts of unsalted pistachios, almonds, and peanuts. Microbiota analysis was performed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method on feces collected before and after the intervention, using primers targeting 16S ribosomal DNA of 4 different bacterial genera, including Bacteroides, Prevotella, Bifidobacterium, and Lactobacillus. We examined the plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, adiponectin as well as expression of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) and fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1) in PBMCs.
Key Findings: A significant reduction in expression of CX3CR1 (p=0.04) and a tendency to lower expression of TLR4 in PBMCs (p=0.06) was observed in the CRDEN group at the end of the study compared to the CRD group. The abundance of fecal Prevotella also tended to increase in CRDEN compared to the CRD group (p=0.06). Plasma insulin and adiponectin had no significant changes. There was a positive correlation between fecal Prevotella abundance and plasma adiponectin at baseline (r=0.315, p=0.015) and the end of the study (r=0.380, p=0.003). Conclusion: Our results suggest that the inclusion of mixed tree nuts and peanuts in a low-calorie diet for 8 weeks led to a lower CX3CR expression in PBMCs in a cohort of overweight or obese patients with stable CAD. This finding provides another beneficial effect of diet supplemented with nuts on factors associated with inflammation.