Can different types of tree nuts and peanuts induce varied effects on specific blood lipid parameters? A systematic review and network meta-analysis

Year Published: 2023


Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr


Isabel Antonia Martínez-Ortega, Arthur Eumann Mesas, Bruno Bizzozero-Peroni, Miriam Garrido-Miguel, Estela Jiménez-López, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno, Rubén Fernández-Rodríguez


Tree nuts and peanuts have shown cardioprotective effects through the modulation of blood lipid levels. Despite the abundance of scientific evidence available, it remains uncertain whether the type of nut consumed influences these changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate and rank the effects of six types of nuts on total cholesterol (total-c), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c), triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c) levels through a systematic search of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), a frequentist network meta-analysis (NMA), and the estimation of SUCRA values. A total of 76 RCTs were ultimately analyzed.

Key Findings

Key Findings: The total c for pistachios, almond, and walnuts; LDL-c for cashews, walnuts, and almond; and TG for hazelnuts and walnuts significantly decreased, while only peanuts exhibited a significant increase in HDL-c levels. According to the rankings, the most effective type of nut for reducing total cholesterol was pistachio, cashew for LDL-c, hazelnut for TG, and peanut for increasing HDL-c levels. It should be noted that every type of nut analyzed exhibited a significant positive impact on some parameters, and specific types demonstrated enhanced advantages for particular blood lipids. These results endorse the use of personalized nutritional strategies to address and prevent dyslipidemia.Registration: PROSPERO database CRD42021270779.