Year Published: 2021
Viola Vargova; Ram B.Singh; Jan Fedacko; Dominik Pella; Daniel Pella; Agnieszka Wilczynska; Viliam Mojto; O.A.Al-bawareed; V.I.Torshin
Nuts should be an important component of a diet rich in functional foods designed for food security, owing to several nutritional benefits on their contents of omega-3 fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, essential and nonessential amino acids, vitamins, flavonoids, folic acids, and plant sterols. Nuts are often combined with fruits and vegetables to improve food diversity for improved food security for prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Nuts such as almonds, walnuts, pistachios, and peanuts (which are actually legumes) may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes mellitus, owing to their high content of polyphenolics, flavonoids, and other nutrients. Epidemiological studies have suggested that nut eating is associated with diminished risk of cardiometabolic diseases, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, and stroke.
Recent cohort studies showed that eating 20–60 g/day of nuts may be protective against NCDs. A metaanalysis of studies showed that one serving of nuts per week or per day may cause a 4% [risk ratio (RR): 0.96] or 27% (RR: 0.73) decline in risk for all-cause mortality and decreased risk of CVD mortality, respectively. A more recent metaanalysis showed that increased intake of tree nuts or peanuts can cause a significant decline in all-cause mortality and mortality due to many NCDs. Further larger studies are necessary to confirm these results.