Incidence of anaphylaxis and accidental peanut exposure: A systematic review
Year Published: 2021
Clin Transl Allergy
Antonella Muraro 1, J Wesley Sublett 2, Tmirah Haselkorn 3, Caroline Nilsson 4, Thomas B Casale 5
Background: Peanut allergy (PA), a common food allergy, is increasing in prevalence and is associated with high rates of anaphylaxis. Prevalence of food-related anaphylaxis is higher in children and adolescents than in adults, and the pediatric incidence is increasing. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to determine the incidence of peanut-induced anaphylaxis in children and/or adolescents with PA. Methods: Literature searches were conducted using the PubMed database and through supplemental methods. Eligible articles for inclusion were peer-reviewed studies published in English that reported the incidence of anaphylaxis in pediatric PA using the 2006 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease/Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network criteria, sample size, and follow-up duration. Incidence rates were calculated as person-years at risk or a crude incidence rate was calculated. Meta-analyses of pooled data were conducted using the I2 statistic as the measure of heterogeneity.
Key Findings: Results: A total of 830 citations were screened; 8 met the study inclusion criteria and were selected for review. Pooled meta-analysis estimates of the incidence of (1) anaphylaxis among children/adolescents with food allergies, (2) anaphylaxis among children/adolescents with PA, and (3) accidental exposure to peanuts among children/adolescents with PA were 3.72 cases per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.35, 5.10), 2.74 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI = 1.42, 4.05), and 12.28 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI = 11.51, 13.05), respectively. Conclusions: The risks of anaphylaxis among children with food allergies and those with PA contribute to the serious overall burden of PA and food allergy for children and their families.