Nutritional and functional properties of cookies enriched with defatted peanut cake flour
Year Published: 2023
Cogent Food & Agriculture
Daud Suleman, Shahid Bashir, Faiz Ul Hassan Shah, Ali Ikram, Muhammad Zia Shahid, Tabussam Tufail, Ammar Ahmad Khan, Fasiha Ahsan, Saadia Ambreen, Awais Raza and Mohamed Hassan Mohamed.
Peanut is the most important oil seed in the world and is becoming a valuable source of plant protein and other important functional ingredients. The present study was designed to explore the nutritional, microbiological, and sensorial properties of the functional cookies enriched with defatted peanut cake flour (DPCF). Peanut seeds were roasted in a microwave, and oil was extracted using a mechanical extruder. The leftover peanut cake residues were collected and utilized for the development of cookies. The mechanical grinder was used to grind the peanut cake into flour. Afterward, DPCF was added at different levels (0, 3, 7, 10, and 14%) to prepare functional and therapeutic cookies. The cookies were tested for their biochemical (proximate, mineral, and antioxidant), micro- biological (Mold count), physical, and sensorial attributes.
Key Findings: The results showed that the mineral content i.e. calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, manganese, phos- phorus, and potassium in the wheat and DPCF were 21, 1.21, 23, 0.80, 0.73, 137, 134.62 and 178.5, 3.81, 49.68, 5.28, 4.95, 730, 1266.50mg/100g, respectively. The antioxidant profile of functional cookies was found to be best in the T4 (14% peanut cake flour) TPC (4.33 ± 0.08 GAE mg/g) and DPPH (1.11 ± 0.06 AAE mg/g), whereas the Control sample has the lowest TPC (1.04 ± 0.02 GAE mg/g) and DPPH (0.18 ± 0.01 AAE mg/g). The thickness, diameter and spread ratio were 3.94–5.54, 31.09–24.98 and 7.82–5.1 mm, respectively. In conclusion, defatted peanut cake flour (DPCF) is a great option to be added in precise amounts (14% of the total) to fill the nutritional gap in cookies.