Year Published: 2018
Lindsay M. Jaacks, Salman Sher, Christine De Staercke, Markus Porkert, Wayne R. Alexander, Dean P. Jones, Viola Vaccarino, Thomas R. Ziegler and Arshed A. Quyyumi
This study was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that examined the efficacy of consumption of either a Mediterranean diet or diet supplemented with fish oil, walnuts, and grape juice vs a control diet (unaltered). Group 1 received the Mediterranean diet; Group 2 received an habitual high fat Amerian diet supplemented with fish oil, walnuts and grape juice; Group 3 consumed an unaltered, habitual high-fat American diet. The Mediterranean diet included an abundance of plant foods (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, and legumes).
Mediterranean diet participants (n=11) had significantly greater weight loss than participants on the control diet (n=9), despite no significant changes in total caloric intake. Mediterranean diet participants also had lower plasma cysteine levels (a marker for oxidative stress) than the control group (n=9), and lower cholesterol and LDL. The supplement arm (group 2, n=10) had lower adiponectin levels compared to the control group (adiponectin is a protein associated with increased risk for atherosclerosis). In conclusion, "eight weeks of substitution of an American-type diet with a Mediterranean diet was found to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors (weight and cholesterol levels)."