Review on chemical compositions and biological activities of peanut (Arachis hypogeae L.)
Year Published: 2022
J Food Biochem
Li Mingrou 1, Sen Guo 1, Chi-Tang Ho 2, Naisheng Bai 1
Peanut (Arachis hypogeae L.) is a food resource with great nutritional and health functions. The present review summarized the nutrients (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals), chemical components (stilbenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, phytosterols, triterpenes, and alkaloids), and biological activities of edible parts of peanut, and research value of bioactive factor resveratrol.
Key Findings: In vivo and in vitro studies, the biological activities of peanut were anticancer, cardiovascular protection, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and regulating intestinal flora, among which resveratrol had the most significant biological activity. The extraction methods of resveratrol are solvent extraction, ultrasonic-assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, enzymatic hydrolysis. Improved extraction and detection methods of resveratrol can better develop high resveratrol peanut varieties. Multiple biological activities of peanuts indicate its potential in disease prevention and treatment. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This review introduces the research progress of nutrients, chemical components, and biological activities of edible portions of peanuts, which will promote the development of peanuts in the food industry and its application as a pharmaceutical preparation. Some bioactive compounds in peanuts, including resveratrol, β-sitosterol, procyanidins, oleic acid, and arachidins, have been found to have the potential to tackle diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and oxidative stress, suggesting that peanuts can be used as nutritional foods to prevent and control these diseases.