Total Nut, Tree Nut, and Peanut Consumption and Metabolic Status in Southern Italian Adults

Year Published: 2021


Int J Environ Res Public Health


Agnieszka Micek 1, Justyna Godos 2, Achille Cernigliaro 3, Raffaele Ivan Cincione 4, Silvio Buscemi 5, Massimo Libra 2 6, Fabio Galvano 2, Giuseppe Grosso 2 Affiliations expand


Background: Nut consumption has been associated with cardio-metabolic health benefits. However, studies conducted in the Southern Italian population, where adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been reported being relatively high, are rather scarce. The aim of this study was to test the association between consumption of total and specific types of nuts and metabolic status among adults living in Sicily, Southern Italy. Methods: Demographic and dietary characteristics of 2044 adults living in Southern Italy were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the association between nut consumption and metabolic status adjusting for potential confounding factors.

Key Findings

Key Findings: Results: The energy-adjusted model revealed that higher nut intake was inversely associated with occurrence of hypertension, type-2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia. However, the association did not remain significant for the latter after adjusting for the main background characteristics, while an inverse association was stably confirmed for hypertension (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.46-0.80 and OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.26-0.74, respectively) even after adjusting for adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Among individual nut types, most of the associations were null except for higher almond intake, which was inversely associated with occurrence of hypertension (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.49-0.99). Conclusions: Higher nut consumption is associated with overall better metabolic status in individuals living in the Mediterranean area.