Association of Nut Consumption with Risk of Stroke and Cardiovascular Disease: The Million Veteran Program

Year Published: 2021




Kerry L Ivey, Xuan-Mai T Nguyen, Rachel M Quaden, Yuk-Lam Ho, Kelly Cho, J Michael Gaziano, Luc Djoussé


This study aimed to test the hypothesis that nut consumption is inversely associated with risk of incidence of stroke, CAD, and CVD mortality in the prospective Million Veterans Program (MVP). A total of 179,827 MVP participants enrolled between 2011 and 2018 were free of CVD prior to assessment of nut consumption via the food frequency questionnaire. Incident stroke and CVD events were ascertained from the Veterans Affairs electronic medical health records and the National Death Index.

Key Findings

Key Findings: Over the 3.5-year median follow-up, 3362 new cases of ischemic stroke were identified. When compared with participants who rarely or never consumed nuts, those consuming nuts ≥ 5 times per week were 19% less likely to experience a stroke (95% CI: 8% to 28%); 22% less likely to suffer from CAD (95% CI: 16% to 28%); and 24% less likely to die from CVD (95% CI: 7% to 37%). Consumption of peanut butter was not associated with risk of stroke. Increased dietary intake of nuts, but not peanut butter, was associated with a lower risk of stroke, CAD, and CVD death.