Effects of whole peanut within an energy-restricted diet on inflammatory and oxidative processes in obese women: a randomized controlled trial
Year Published: 2022
Cristiane Gonçalves de Oliveira Fialho 1 , Ana Paula Boroni Moreira 1 , Josefina Bressan 2 , Rita de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas 2 , Richard Mattes 3 , Neuza Maria Brunoro Costa
Background: Peanut consumption has little effect on body weight, despite its high energy density and is associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that the consumption of whole peanut would be associated with greater improvements in body composition, lipid profile, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Methodology: Twenty-four women with obesity [body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg m-2 ], 33.1 ± 8.7 years old, were assigned to three groups and consumed 56 g of whole peanut (WP), skinned peanut (SP), and no peanut (NP) and consumed energy-restricted diets (250 kcal d-1 less than their customary diet) for 8 weeks.
Key Findings: Results: WP group lost an average of 3.2 kg, while SP group lost 2.6 kg and the NP group 1.8 kg. However, only the groups that consumed peanuts showed a significant reduction in BMI. WP group presented lower body weight, BMI, waist circumference, total lean mass, and total body fat than the SP group in the eighth week. There was a significant reduction in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) after 4 weeks of intervention, which was maintained in week-8 for the WP and SP groups. In addition, there was an improvement in platelets and plasma homocysteine with WP group. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the regular intake of the whole peanut as part of an energy-restricted diet showed health benefits since it enhanced body weight loss, besides improving body composition and reducing cholesterol, platelets, and homocysteine concentrations. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.