Year Published: 2022
by Kristina S. Petersen 1, *ORCID, Jess Murphy 2, Jane Whitbread 2, Peter M. Clifton 2ORCID and Jennifer B. Keogh 2ORCID
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of consuming 35 g of peanuts prior to two main meals per day as part of a weight loss diet, compared to a traditional low-fat weight loss diet, on body weight, markers of glycemic control, and blood pressure in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes over 6 months. A two-arm randomized controlled trial was conducted. Adults (age > 18 years) with a BMI of >26 kg/m2 at risk of type 2 diabetes were randomized to the peanut group or the traditional low-fat-diet group (control). The peanut group was advised to consume 35 g of lightly salted dry-roasted peanuts prior to two main meals per day. Participants in the control group were given education to follow a low-fat diet. Both groups had dietetic counseling to restrict energy intake (women: <5500 kJ/1300 kcal/d; men: <7000 kJ/1700 kcal/d). Outcome assessment occurred at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months.
In total, 107 participants were randomized (65% female; mean age 58 ± 14 years, BMI 33 ± 5.4 kg/m2, waist circumference 109 ± 13 cm, AUSDRISK score 15 ± 5 points), and 76 participants completed the study. No between-group difference in body weight (primary outcome) was observed at 6 months (mean difference, −0.12 kg; 95% CI, −2.42, 2.18; p = 0.92). The mean weight loss at 6 months was 6.7 ± 5.1 kg in the cohort (visit p < 0.001). HbA1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, 2-h glucose, and HOMA-IR were not different between the groups. Systolic blood pressure was reduced to a greater extent in the peanut group vs. the control group at 6 months (−5.33 mmHg; 95% CI, −9.23, −1.43; p = 0.008). Intake of 35 g of peanuts prior to two main meals per day, in the context of an energy-restricted diet, resulted in weight loss comparable to a traditional low-fat weight loss diet without preloads. Greater systolic blood pressure reductions were observed with peanut intake, which may lower cardiovascular disease risk.